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In Eastern Europe and the post-Soviet areas, crusades are developing around history and memory of the past. Instrumentalised, sometimes spiritualised, history and memory are nowadays the battlehorse of governmental policies in the East. They provide keys to understand the formation, crystallization and / or pursuit of “national identities” on which governments rely, exclusive and often xenophobic identities. The /Letter/ offers readers an overview of the public uses and political instrumentalisations of the past in this region of the world.